© 2018 by All About Singing

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Shape Your Throat ideally to suit the Vowel and Pitch being sung.

What is a Vowel?

As kids, we’re taught that there are 5 Vowels in the English language. But what exactly defines a vowel?

 

A vowel is a sound that is formed without any constriction or obstruction in the vocal tract. Try sustaining the vowel [o] (oh like So) and notice the placement of your articulators. While sustaining the [o] vowel, your lips are apart and your tongue is low and away from the roof of your mouth. There is no contact between any of your articulators to act as an obstacle to the airflow. The air is allowed to flow constantly through your vocal tract without any interference.

 

A consonant is formed with one or more constrictions in the vocal tract. Try sustaining the consonant [m] like ‘hum’. You’ll notice yourself humming to sustain the sound. Although the air is travelling through your vocal tract constantly, your lips are completely sealed, blocking any sound from escaping your mouth and obstructing the airflow.

 

Try sustaining another consonant [l] like ‘well’. Again, you’ll notice the airflow is constant, but the tip of your tongue touches the roof of your mouth, which acts as a constriction in your throat.

 

Since vowels are formed with an open configuration of the vocal tract, they carry the most sound energy. For this reason, 90% of singing is done on vowels, 10% on consonants. This is the main difference between singing and speaking. Vowels are sustained for a much longer period in singing than in speaking.

 

Now that we’ve understood what defines a vowel, let’s focus on the application of vowels in singing.  To do this, we need to look at Pure Vowels.

Pure Vowels

A pure vowel is formed with a single unchanging shape of the vocal tract. This is brought about by a fixed placement of your articulators. Say the Italian Vowel [i] like in [feet]. You’ll notice that you place your articulators in a certain manner to procure the [i] vowel and do not shift from this placement from the beginning to the end of the sound. There is no change in the shape of your throat and quality of sound. This is a Pure Vowel or Monophthong.

 

A pure vowel can be contrasted with a diphthong. A diphthong is formed by changing the placement of your articulators to produce a sound. Say the English Vowel [i] like  [hi]. Did you notice how you formed the [i] vowel? You start with an open mouth position and move to a more closed mouth position to complete the vowel. So [i] is actually broken up into 2 vowels:

 

i = ah + ee

 

Say [ah] and [ee] separately. Now say them together quickly to produce [i]. The vowel [i] has 2 parts to it, which makes it a Diphthong. Each of the 2 vowels [ah] and [ee] are Pure Vowels because they are single distinctive sounds that can be formed without changing the placement of your articulators to maintain a single unchanging shape of your throat.

 

The same way, if you have a combination of 3 Vowels, you form a triphthong.

 

 

 

Below is a table of different words that are formed as monophthongs, diphthongs and triphthongs

 

It is much easier to sing on pure vowels than combined vowels like in diphthongs and triphthongs. So to learn how to sing with proper technique, we must use pure vowels. For this reason, we sing with the Italian Vowels. The 5 Italian Vowels are all pure vowels, unlike the 5 English Vowels. This is why the Italian language is known as the ‘language of singers’. After all, Bel Canto is an Italian Singing Technique.

Below is a table comparing the English Vowels with the Italian Vowels.

As you can see in the table above, the Italian Vowels are pronounced without any change in articulator placement and quality of sound.

 

The English Vowels are formed with a combination of 2 Pure Vowels like ‘EH + ee’. The only exception among the English Vowels is [e] (ee like See), which is a pure vowel and is pronounced the same way as the Italian Vowel [i] (ee like See).

 

There is a similar pronunciation in the English [o] and the Italian [o]. But still, the English [o] is formed by rounding the lips completely towards the end of the vowel to produce a brief [oo]. The Italian [o] stays pure and distinct, without any change in the vocal tract whatsoever.

 

Among the 2 pure vowels that make up each English Vowel, one is sustained for a longer period than the other. The sustained vowel is represented by upper case letters (EH) and the vowel heard for just a brief period is represented by lower case letters (ee).

 

You’ll slowly start to see the importance of singing on pure vowels as we get into the application of vowels in singing. Now that we’ve understood what pure vowels are, we can look at how exactly pure vowels are formed. The formation of pure vowels can be learnt using the Cardinal Vowel System.

 

Cardinal Vowel System

In the early 20th century, a phonetician named Daniel Jones developed a system that represented every pure vowel. Using X-rays, he was able to study the positions of the articulators for each vowel. This helped him determine that every pure vowel is formed with its own unique placement of the articulators. If the position of the articulators is changed even slightly to alter the shape of the throat, a new vowel is formed. This system is called the Cardinal Vowel System.

 

The vowels in the Cardinal System are all pure vowels and are referred to as Cardinal Vowels.  There are 28 Cardinal Vowels in all. They are represented using Latin and Greek letters. The Cardinal Vowel System is created using the placement of your tongue.

 

The placement of your tongue is determined by 2 parameters:

•     Tongue Height: How high or low your tongue is from the roof of your mouth

•     Tongue Backness: How front or back your tongue is placed in your mouth

 

Using these 2 parameters, if you place your tongue in the most extreme positions, you get 4 Cardinal Vowels:

 

 

 

 

[i] (ee like Eat) is the most closed vowel. Your tongue is placed at its highest and most forward position.

 

[a] (ah like Father) is formed with your tongue in its lowest and most forward position.

 

[ɒ] (aw like Saw) is the most open vowel. Your tongue is placed in its lowest and most back position.

 

[u] (oo like Cool) is the most rounded vowel. Your tongue is placed in its highest and most back position.

 

Images to be added showing tongue placement for each vowel

 

If you connect the tongue placement points for these 4 Vowels, it forms a quadrilateral. The axes can be labelled as the 2 parameters for tongue placement: Tongue Height and Tongue Backness.

For Tongue Height, the vowel can be formed with a high or low placement of the tongue.

For Tongue Backness, the vowel can be formed with a front or back placement of the tongue.

By dividing this quadrilateral horizontally, you can place more Cardinal Vowels according to
Tongue Height.


The Tongue Height parameter now has 4 degrees: High - Mid-high - Mid-low - Low

These are the 8 Primary Cardinal vowels. They are the most commonly used vowel sounds in
languages. Every Cardinal Vowel is numbered in order to identify and refer to them easily.


Cardinals 1-5 are formed with an unrounded position of the lips.


Cardinals 6-8 are formed a with a rounded position of the lips.

If the shape of the lips for the primary cardinal vowels are reversed, they form a second set of
Cardinal Vowels, the 8 Secondary Cardinal Vowels.

Cardinals 9-13 are now formed with a rounded position of the lips.


Cardinals 14-16 are formed with an unrounded position of the lips.

By placing a vertical line through the quadrilateral shape, another degree of tongue backness is
created.


The Tongue Backness parameter now has 3 degrees: Front - Central - Back

This forms the complete Cardinal Vowel Chart that represents all 28 Pure Cardinal Vowels.


Now we don’t have to use every Cardinal vowel in learning how to sing with an open throat. We’re
only interested in the 8 Primary Cardinal Vowels along with a few other vowels on the chart.


Using the Cardinal Vowel System, we can learn how to match the shape of your throat with the
vowel being sung.

Articles

Singing with an Open Throat

 

** Singing with an Open Throat is the 2nd Part of the Bel Canto Singing Technique.

Before reading this article, make sure to have read the 1st Part - The Appoggio Breathing Technique. The Appoggio and Singing with an Open Throat go hand in hand together; one cannot operate effectively without the other.

 

 

What is Singing with an Open Throat?

 

Now the topic of singing with an open throat can seem quite complex to most people. But honestly, its quite simple. It just needs to be explained in the right way.

 

To put in simple terms, singing with an open throat means to create enough space in your throat for singing. Now the problem with this definition is that it doesn’t tell us how much space is enough and how to create enough space for singing.

 

A more accurate definition of singing with an open throat is to:

Shape Your Throat ideally to suit the Vowel and Pitch being sung.

 

But that sounds too complicated, doesn’t it?

 

Read that definition a couple of times to try and make sense of it. If you still didn’t get it, don’t worry, we’ll look at it in greater detail.

 

For now, let’s see just how important singing with an open throat really is.

 

Why do I need to Sing with an Open Throat?

 

The main purpose of singing with an open throat is to sing higher notes comfortably with a resonant and desirable tone.

 

Now everyone can sing in their speaking range. It doesn’t matter if they sound good or not. The point is that people can sing within their speaking range without straining their voice. But the real challenge a singer faces is being able to sing higher notes beyond his/her speaking range with ease.

 

So why do we strain to sing high notes?

Why does it feel as though your voice is about to break or flip as you sing higher in pitch?

Why can’t singing high notes be made easier?

 

Think of someone who has never physically worked out trying to lift the same weight as a body builder. Its quite impossible isn't it? The muscles have just not been trained and developed the same way a body builder’s has to carry out such an exercise.

 

The same way, if you’re finding it difficult to sing beyond your speaking range comfortably, it means that the muscles and vocal folds in your larynx have simply not been trained and developed in the right way.

 

This is what singing with an open throat helps your overcome. By singing with an open throat, you can train and develop your vocal folds and laryngeal muscles to function optimally for singing higher in pitch with ease.

 

To summarise, singing with an open throat will allow you to:

•     Sing high notes with ease

•     Erase breaks and blend vocal registers

•     Sing with a balanced tone through your entire vocal range

•     Improve power and resonance

•     Sing healthily

 

So let’s see how we can sing with an open throat.

 

How to Sing with an Open Throat?

 

Let’s look at that definition of singing with an open throat again:

Shape Your Throat ideally to suit the Vowel and Pitch being sung.

Now let’s break this definition down into 3 parts:

Singing with an Open Throat:

Shape Your Throat ideally to suit the Vowel and Pitch being sung.

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We need to look at these 3 parts separately to learn how exactly to sing with an open throat. We’ve simplified everything, so don’t worry about having to understand any fancy singing terms.

 

a. Shape Your Throat

Singing with an Open Throat:

Shape Your Throat ideally to suit the Vowel and Pitch being sung.

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To understand how to shape your throat we need to first look at what exactly makes up your throat. Your throat is the tube that extends from your Larynx or Adam’s Apple to your lips. To find your larynx, run your finger down the front of your neck till you reach a protrusion or lump. This is your larynx or Adam’s Apple. It is seen and felt more prominently in men than women. Everything between your larynx and lips is part of your throat.

 

Now your throat is quite flexible in nature, which means you can change its length and shape. Altering the length and shape of your throat is not a special skill to be learnt. In fact, you do it in everyday activities such as speaking, laughing, swallowing and yawning.

 

Try this simple exercise to see how easily you can change the length and shape of your throat. Gently place a finger on your larynx (Adam’s Apple) or look into a mirror. Now swallow. Notice how your larynx rises immediately. This shortens the length and reduces the amount of space in your throat as the distance between your larynx and lips is reduced.

 

Now try yawning and notice what happens. Your larynx drops down immediately to increase the length and the amount of space in your throat.

 

So how does changing the length and shape of the throat help us in singing?

 

The whole purpose of altering the length and shape of your throat is to alter the tone or quality of your voice. This means that if you can learn how to shape your throat correctly for singing, you can blend the registers of your voice smoothly to access the higher notes of your vocal range with ease.

 

You can alter the length and shape of your throat using your articulators.

Articulators

Your articulators consist of your:

•     Larynx

•     Pharynx

•     Soft Palate

•     Tongue

•     Jaw

•     Lips

 

You might not have heard about some of these articulators before. We’ll look at each of them individually in just a minute. For now, let’s see how your articulators function to produce different sounds.

 

Your articulators help shape the sound produced by your vocal folds into letters, words and sentences. 

 

For example, pronounce the letter ‘c’ (s-ee) and notice the movement of your articulators. You start by closing your teeth almost completely and raising your tongue to touch the roof of your mouth. This produces the first part of the letter, a hissing sound ‘sss’ (s-ee). Then, your articulators make a slight transition. Your teeth get separated and your tongue is slightly lowered, not touching the roof of your mouth anymore. This produces the second part of the letter  ‘ee’ (s-ee). 

 

And there you have it! With some slight adjustments of your articulators, you were able to pronounce the letter ‘c’.

 

This means that every letter is produced with a certain adjustment of your articulators. Well, thats what makes each letter sound different from the other.

 

So as you move your articulators around, you alter the length and shape of your throat. This in turn alters the sound of your voice. Since your throat is relatively compact, subtle movements in your articulators can cause significant changes in the sound. And this is important to us because singing is after all nothing but controlling the sound of your voice.

 

Now the first step in shaping your throat correctly for singing is learning the proper placement of your articulators.

 

There are certain positions that your articulators must take on to create enough space in your throat that will allow you to sing higher notes with ease:

•     Larynx slightly low

•     Pharynx wide

•     Soft Palate relatively high

•     Tongue relaxed and naturally arched

•     Jaw loose and wrapped back

•     Lips slightly rounded

 

Now don’t worry about having to learn how to control each of these articulators separately. Your articulators are all connected to one another. They affect each others movements. We can learn the proper placement of all your articulators together with the simple process of inhalation or breathing in. Always remember, the manner in which you inhale or breathe in determines the placement of your articulators.

 

Imagine yourself smelling a rose. Close your eyes and breathe in slowly and silently through your nose. You’ll notice the space in your throat open up significantly. When you breathe in with such a pleasant facial expression, your articulators naturally take on the proper placement to prepare you for singing. Your larynx is slightly lowered, your pharynx is widened and your soft palate is raised to increase the space in your throat. At the same time, your tongue, jaw and lips become loose and relaxed.

 

Practice this exercise several times a day to get used to the feeling of an open throat. This is how you should feel everytime you sing, more so while singing in the higher range of your voice. Remember, breathing in correctly prepares you to sing correctly.

 

So we’ve learnt the proper placement of your articulators to open up your throat before singing. Now let’s look at each of your articulators in more detail to understand more about their role in singing with an open throat.

Larynx

There are 3 ways of using your larynx to sing:

•     Raised Larynx

•     Depressed Larynx

•     Neutral or Slightly Low larynx

 

Raised Larynx

As we learnt earlier, your larynx rises during the natural process of swallowing. Place your finger on your larynx (Adam’s Apple) and swallow to notice this. Have you ever wondered why this happens?

 

When you swallow, your swallowing muscles get activated and raise your larynx. As your larynx rises, the muscles within your larynx close up and the entrance to your larynx gets shut off. This prevents any swallowed material from entering your larynx and your windpipe below it. The swallowed material is instead directed to your food pipe. If the entrance to your larynx is kept open while swallowing, the swallowed material will enter your larynx and your windpipe to block off the airway. This will result in you coughing to expel the substance from your airway as you will experience an immediate choking sensation. Try swallowing without your larynx rising. Be careful not to try and force your larynx to stay down with any external force. It’s quite impossible isn't it?

 

Try another experiment. Swallow and breathe in at the same time. You’ll notice that you can only do one of these actions, not both simultaneously because the entrance to your airway is sealed off while swallowing. So if you can’t breathe in or breathe out with a raised larynx, why should you sing with a raised larynx?

 

Singing with a raised larynx is a tendency for most of us as we approach the higher notes in our vocal range. As we sing higher in pitch, we tend to use more air, which produces tension at the level of the larynx. In a futile attempt to reduce this tension, your body naturally activates your swallowing muscles, which elevates your larynx. As your larynx rises higher, the length of your vocal tract is shortened, the muscles in your larynx close up and the entrance to your airway gets smaller. This produces a shrill and strained sound. Singing with a raised larynx is detrimental to vocal health and can lead to vocal problems such as redness, swelling and hoarseness. Over a period of time, you could experience more serious problems such as nodules, polyps or cysts. 

Depressed Larynx

Try yawning and speaking at the same time. You’ll notice that your tone is very dull and muffled. This happens because your larynx drops down, which increases the length of your vocal tract greatly. You definitely don’t want to sound like you’re yawning while singing.

 

You might find yourself singing with a depressed larynx with the improper use of your tongue and jaw. Your tongue and jaw have the greatest impact on the position of your larynx as they share common muscular attachments.

 

Your larynx is placed just below the root of your tongue. So if your tongue is flattened or retracted while singing, it forcefully pushes your larynx down. Such pressure applied directly onto your larynx prevents your vocal folds from vibrating well and can cause vocal damage.

 

Like your tongue, your lower jaw can depress your larynx as well. If you lower your jaw excessively while singing, it applies pressure upon your larynx to force it down.

 

Neutral or Slightly Low Larynx

Singing with a neutral or slightly low larynx is a universally accepted method. It is the safest and most healthy way of using your larynx to sing.

 

We already learnt that when you breathe in correctly, like you’re smelling a rose, your larynx is naturally lowered a bit. This is the neutral or slightly low larynx position. To maintain the slightly low larynx, you must sing with the Appoggio Breathing Technique. Only when you learn how to manage your breath efficiently, can you deactivate your swallowing muscles and engage your singing muscles. When your larynx maintains a neutral or slightly low position, the laryngeal muscles and vocal folds are allowed to function optimally to help you access your entire vocal range with complete freedom.

 

As you sing higher in pitch, your larynx should actually tilt downwards very subtly. This slight downward tilt lengthens your vocal tract and stretches your vocal folds just enough to allow you to sing in the higher range of your voice comfortably with a resonant and balanced tone. The downward tilt is known as the Laryngeal Tilt and is a key part of singing with an open throat.

 

It’s interesting to note that your larynx does not actually move up and down like we might think it to. It simply rocks or tilts back and forth in one fixed placed. This gives us the impression of the larynx moving up and down because we can only see the movement of the Adam’s Apple on the outside of the neck.

 

Pharynx

Your pharynx is located just above your larynx. It consists of 3 major constrictor muscles that make up the back wall of your throat:

•     Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor

•     Medial Pharyngeal Constrictor

•     Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictor

 

The pharynx is looked down upon and even ignored by many pedagogues as an important part of singing. But the truth is that your pharynx is one of the most important articulators in shaping your throat. When the walls of your pharynx are widened, the space in your throat increases substantially. It is this space that contributes to producing a resonant sound with minimal effort. Have you ever wondered how operatic singers can project their voice over an entire orchestra? It’s the widened pharynx that contributes greatly to resonance and projection of the voice without shouting or straining.

 

You can widen your pharynx with the same exercise of breathing in like you’re smelling a rose. When you breathe in this way, not only is your larynx lowered slightly, your pharynx is widened as well.

 

If your pharynx is narrowed or constricted, your soft palate is naturally lowered. These combined actions reduce the space in the back of your throat immensely. This leads to vocal problems such as straining and breaks in your voice, especially while singing in the higher range.

 

 

Soft Palate

The roof of your mouth can be divided into the hard palate in the front and the soft palate at the back. You can notice the difference in texture of the two palates as you slide the tip of your tongue across the roof of your mouth from front to back. Your soft palate is an extension of your hard palate.

 

Your soft palate, also known as your velum is flexible in nature. It is naturally elevated and lowered while speaking to produce different sounds. When your soft palate is elevated, it shuts off the entrance to your nasal cavity, called the velopharyngeal port. This prevents any sound from entering your nasal cavity to produce non-nasal sounds like ‘k’ (kuh) or ‘g’ (guh). When your soft palate is lowered, the velopharyngeal port is open and sound is allowed to travel through your nasal cavity. This is required to produce nasal sounds like ‘m’ (muh) or ‘n’ (nuh).

 

For singing, your soft palate should always be relatively high as to maximise the space in your throat. This relatively high position of your soft palate doesn’t shut off the entrance to your nasal cavity completely, which allows some sound to get through for healthy nasal resonance. Keeping a relatively high soft palate helps balance out the nasality in your tone. 

 

To raise your soft palate, try inhaling a ‘kuh’ sound. Although you might find yourself breathing in noisily, this exercise helps you understand what raising your soft palate should feel like. Use a mirror while doing this exercise to notice the elevation of your soft palate. Now, instead of inhaling the ‘kuh’ noisily, breathe in silently while still elevating your soft palate. Memorise this feeling. This should be the ideal placement of your soft palate everytime you breathe in to sing.

 

If your soft palate is lowered while singing, you can also expect your pharynx to be narrowed and your larynx to be elevated. You might recall learning that this occurs because your articulators are connected to one another and affect each other’s movements. A low soft palate reduces the space in your mouth and the back of your throat, which makes it virtually impossible to get through the higher range of your voice with ease. Moreover, a lowered soft palate means more sound gets through your nasal cavity, which results in too much nasality while singing.

Tongue

Your tongue is probably the most important articulator in shaping your throat. You can use your tongue to alter the space in your mouth and the back of your throat, which can affect the sound in many different ways.

 

Your tongue can be divided into 3 parts:

•     Tip

•     Body

•     Root/Base

 

Tip of your Tongue

The tip of your tongue should always rest behind your lower front teeth, not touching your lower gums. It should only be allowed to come up to produce certain consonants such as ‘l’ or ‘t’.

 

 

Body of your Tongue

The body makes up the major portion of your tongue. It should be allowed to move freely. Ideally speaking, if your tongue does not hold any tension and remains loose and relaxed, it can take on the natural positions required to produce the desired sounds.

 

You might have come across sources that teach you to sing with one fixed position for the body of the tongue such as the raised tongue or the flattened tongue technique.

 

If you sing with a raised tongue at all times, the space in your mouth is diminished completely. Try sustaining the ‘Ng’ sound in ‘Hung’. You'll notice a lot of nasality in your tone. This is because your tongue is blocking your mouth or oral cavity and directing all the sound to your nasal cavity. Almost everyone would agree that having too much nasality in the tone sounds extremely unpleasant. More importantly, raising your tongue too high diminishes resonance in the sound and makes it difficult to blend vocal registers smoothly.

 

If you sing with a flat or retracted tongue at all times, you’ll find your tongue elongated completely across the floor of your mouth. This results in a great mass of your tongue bunching up at the back of your throat, which acts as an obstacle to the airway that chokes off the breath. You might feel this as a lump in your throat.

 

It’s as simple as this, your tongue needs to take on different positions to produce different vowels. So how can you possibly maintain one fixed position for all vowels? Wouldn’t that make all the vowels sound exactly the same? More importantly, by forcing your tongue to maintain one position while singing, you invite tongue tension, which then reflects in your jaw and larynx.

 

Root of your Tongue

The root or base of your tongue is not visible to the eye when you open your mouth. It lies directly above your larynx, which means it can easily influence the position of your larynx. Flattening or retracting your tongue while singing causes the root to be pushed down upon your larynx and forcefully lower it. Not only do these methods result in undesirable tone, they can cause permanent and irreversible vocal damage over a period of time.

 

Jaw

The movement of your jaw determines the amount of space in your mouth or oral cavity. Many singers make the mistake of trying to open their mouth as wide as possible in hopes of creating more space in the throat. Believe it or not, lowering your jaw excessively increases the space in your mouth, but at the same time constricts and reduces the opening space just above your larynx. The more you lower your jaw, the more constricted this space becomes. So lowering your jaw excessively while singing will only result in a strained sound and a lack of vocal freedom. Your jaw also places pressure upon your larynx and depresses it. As we learnt earlier, a depressed larynx will produce a dull and muffled tone and can result in vocal damage.

 

If your jaw is not lowered enough while singing, especially in the higher register of your voice, there won’t be enough space in your mouth for the sound to resonate and travel freely.

 

So yes, you must lower your jaw to create enough space in your mouth while singing, but not beyond a certain degree. A simple rule to remember is to use the 2 finger rule. Point your index and middle fingers toward you and place them vertically between your lips. Your jaw should never be lowered beyond this point.

 

Lips

Although your lips move along with your jaw, they can be controlled independently to shape the sound. Your lips can actually alter the length of your throat or vocal tract. This plays an important role in singing with an open throat.

 

As you sing higher in pitch, your lips should slowly protrude to take on a more rounded shape. This lengthens your vocal tract by increasing the distance between your lips and larynx. Rounding the vowel this way helps blend the registers of your voice smoothly with a balanced tone.

 

If your lips are spread horizontally, like in the Italian Vowel ‘i’ (ee like See), your vocal tract is shortened as the distance between your lips and larynx is reduced. Singing with a spread mouth position can cause vocal problems such as added tension and breaks in the voice. The Vowel ‘i’ can instead be sung with a more rounded position of your lips, particularly in the higher register to produce a more balanced tone.

 

The combined effect of tilting your larynx, widening your pharynx, raising your soft palate, lowering your jaw sufficiently, keeping your tongue relaxed and rounding your lips will allow you to sing higher in pitch with comfort and ease. Just remember, the proper placement of your articulators can be achieved when you breathe in correctly like you’re smelling a rose.

 

So we’ve covered the 1st Part of Singing with an Open Throat - Shape Your Throat.

 

We can now look at shaping your throat to suit the vowel being sung. Let’s learn how to do this in the 2nd Part - Vowel.

b. Vowels

Singing with an Open Throat:

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Rest of Singing with an Open Throat

Coming Soon